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    A map of the various tanks.

    The Battle of the Adyar

    What do you think was the most significant battle in modern Indian history (1498-1948), I was recently asked by a researcher who called on me. I had no hesitation in replying, “The Battle of the Adyar River.” Much to her surprise.

    The battle was a consequence of Fort St. George surrendering to the French early in October 1746. On October 15, the Nawab of Arcot — whom the English had supported — sent troops under the command of his son, Mahfuz Khan, to invest Fort St. George and ask the French to return the settlement to the English. Instead, the French broke out of the fort and dispersed the Nawab’s troops. Mahfuz Khan, reinforcing his army, it is said, to about 10,000 men, then moved south, seized San Thomé and formed a battle line on the north bank of the Adyar River on October 22 to prevent the French moving up reinforcements from Pondicherry. Two hundred French and French-trained Indian troops led by a Swiss mercenary, Captain Paradis, force marched from Pondicherry on the same day, crossed Quibble Island and took positions on the south bank of the Adyar River where they came under ineffective artillery fire from Mahfuz Khan’s forces.

    On the 24th, Paradis decided to ford the river with his 200 men after he heard that a similar sized force led by de la Tour was on its way from Fort St. George to attack the rear of Mahfuz Khan’s line. But in the event, de la Tour arrived too late to support Paradis whose troops, with disciplined firing and then charging with bayonets, broke the Nawab’s line. Mahfuz Khan’s troops fled and, so, the Battle of the Adyar River, which began on the morning of October 24, 1746, ended by that evening, with the French occupation of Fort St. George consolidated.

    In terms of later battles and today’s ones, the Battle of the Adyar River was not much of a clash of arms. But it proved one thing. That disciplined European troops and Indian sipahis trained in the European manner of soldiering could rout thousands of Indian soldiers with little training and less discipline. And that lesson was not lost on the English who, the same year, in their last bolt-hole on the Coromandel, Fort St. David, Cuddalore, began raising and training what became the Madras Regiment that was to be the nucleus of the Indian Army of today that grew from those beginnings. It is with that Army that the British created an India that has grown into the modern nation of today. Triggering English thought to create such a military force that was to spearhead the drive for Empire and the creation of modern India is the significance of that battle that many treat just as a footnote to history. From my point of view, it was a pivotal point in history.

    Where are the tanks?

    Not long ago, about a 100 years ago, Madras had within its municipal limits something like 300 water bodies. Today, there are hardly a couple of dozen. The rest have all been built over. And that includes three of its biggest ones: the Long Tank, the Vyasarpadi Tank and the Spur Tank. And lest we blame the authorities of post-Independence Madras, we should recall that the process of replacing precious water with brick and mortar began around 1920.

    The Long Tank was a boomerang-shaped one, about 6 km in length from the southernmost tip of what was called the Mylapore Tank to the westernmost tip of the tank it flowed into, the Nungambakkam Tank. The Mylapore Tank stretch was one of the early venues (1870s-90s) of the Madras Boat Club regattas, having as it did “a fine expanse of water from the Cathedral Corner (where Gemini Studios used to be) to Sydapet…”. Blacker’s Garden, near what is now called Cathedral Garden Road (and then occupied by successive high Government officials) was where the boathouse was and where the Governor, his Lady and their entourage, together with his Band and other spectators (‘Europeans Only’) gathered to watch the finishes.

    When there was a debate in the 1890s on whether this stretch or the Adyar (which is now the Club’s home course) was preferable, the supporters of the Long Tank pointed out, “Although the glare of the setting sun off the broad stretch of water was somewhat trying, a good view of the whole course could be had, which is not obtainable on the Adyar. The Long Tank provides a long broad stretch of deep water, the course being straight from start to finish, so that, for racing purposes, it is infinitely preferable to the river which winds about a great deal and presents at low tide, a shallow and uneven course almost throughout.” What a body of water to lose!

    But lose it we did when, in 1923, the Town Planners decided that growing Madras needed more land for housing and proposed the Mambalam Housing Scheme for whose 1600 acres it became necessary to breach the Long Tank and let its waters into the Adyar. The breaching was done in 1930, and the development of Theogaraya Nagar (T’Nagar) began. Then, in 1941, the ‘Lake Area’ was developed on part of the Nungambakkam Tank and was followed by 54 acres being given for the campus of Loyola College. The last vestiges of the tank were handed over, in 1974, for the Valluvar Kottam complex.

    The Vyasarpadi Tank, into which the water from 28 tanks once flowed, gradually gave way to post-Independence development and finally vanished under the weight of the Tamil Nadu Housing Board’s Vyasarpadi Neighbourhood Scheme and the Vyasarpadi Industrial Estate in the 1960s and 70s. And the Spur Tank all but vanished from around the 1920s as buildings came up for what is now the Kilpauk General Hospital. All that’s left of it is what is called Chetpet Lake, which is dry most of the time.

    When the postman knocked…

    Aruna Gill, in a response from Princeton on my item this past week on her book The Indus Intercept, writes that she has been neither to Pakistan nor its troubled Baluchistan province. “I have to thank,” she explains, “Google Maps for allowing me to zoom in on the terrain and the streets of Quetta for a bird’ eye view and a street’ eye view.” She then tells me, referring to her interest in the Indus script, that while her husband Gyan Prakash, who teaches at Princeton, is focussed on modern Indian history, her interest has always been “in the ancient worlds.” She adds, “Reading the history of ancient cultures humbles me — that they could know and think and do things with such limited resources. Ancient scripts are just one manifestation of this, while we take the written word so much for granted.”

    * Additional information on the brothers Vembakkam Sadagopacharlu and Rajagopalacharlu (Miscellany, November 5) has been sent to me by reader V.C. Srikumar, the Editor of the Law Weekly.He tells me that the journal was founded in 1914 by V.C. Seshachariar, an advocate, the son of Rajagopalacharlu, whose elder son was V.C. Desikachari, Chief Judge of the Madras Small Causes Court. Referring to the appointment of Sadagopacharlu to the Madras Legislative Assembly, the first Indian to be so appointed, reader Srikumar points out that he was one of the three non-official members nominated in 1862 by Governor Sir William Dennison under the then introduced Indian Councils Act, 1861. The other two were Robert Campbell, chairman of the Madras Chamber of Commerce, and an earlier chairman of the Chamber, William R. Arbuthnot. The three first sat in Council on January 22, 1862.

    Commending the choice of a person it later described as “a native pleader in an East India Company’s Court,” The Hindu stated, “He is a man of extensive and varied information regarding the country and its wants; is a sound practical lawyer; has come in contact with almost all sections of the population of the Southern Districts of the Presidency; is highly esteemed for his popular sympathies… and (he) possesses in abundance the essential requisites of a public man, to wit, sound judgment and tact.” Several acres of his property in Alamelmangapuram, Venkatesa Agraharam and what is now Raja Annamalaipuram were, on his death, endowed by his wife Echamma to the Sri Vedantha Desikar Temple, Mylapore, which has given much of the acreage on 99-year leases for housing development.

    * Library Week, which was celebrated throughout the country from November 14 to 20, was, I am reminded by a reader, the outcome of the first All-India Public Library Conference which was held at the Gokhale Hall on November 14, 1919. Another significant outcome of the Conference was the founding on the same day of the All India Public Library Association. This was five years before S.R. Ranganathan, the ‘Father of Library Science’, entered the field. I wonder, then, who was the driving force in Madras who initiated the Conference and headed its Organising Committee. Someone indeed to be remembered.

    source: http://www.TheHindu.com / Home> News> Cities> Chennai> Madras Miscellany> Arts>  History & Culture / by S. Muthiah / November 25th, 2012

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    all ears:Participants at the conference on ‘Malaysian Tamil Literature: yesterday and today’ in Thanjavur on Monday.Photo:B. Velankanni Raj.

    all ears: Participants at the conference on ‘Malaysian Tamil Literature: yesterday and today’ in Thanjavur on Monday. / Photo:B. Velankanni Raj. / The Hindu

    Literature is not leisure-time writing. It represents a country’s culture, language, and race, said P.Rajendran, president, Malaysian Tamil Writers Association, here on Monday.

    Speaking at the international conference on ‘Malaysian Tamil Literature: yesterday and today’ organised by the Department of Tamil Studies in Foreign Countries at Tamil University, Mr.Rajendran said that literature reflects the life and time of a community. “Through Tamil literature , we learn the valour, love, and dignity of the Tamil community,” he said.

    The Tamil literary tradition in Malaysia is 150 years old. In the first 100 years, the Tamil literary works that originated in Malaysia talked about places such as Thanjavur, Salem, and Tiruvannamalai and lives of the people in those areas. Since1950, there was a renaissance and stories and writings reflected the life of Malaysian Tamils.

    “I’m delighted to know that 15 to 20 students of Tamil University have taken up research on Malaysian Tamil literature. There is no point in us talking about our literature. You should study it critically and talk about it . Likewise, we should speak the fame of your literature,” Mr.Rajendran said.

    He also called for making use of the memorandum of understanding signed between Tamil writers of Malaysia and Tamil University for exchange visits by students and teachers . “It has not gained momentum. Only one such bilateral visit has taken place; there should be more,” he said.

    Malaysian Tamil Writers Association has been doing a lot for promoting Tamil literature in Malaysia. Annual conferences are conducted on short stories and poems and awards are given for best books. “We would like to meet the Chief Minister, when we visit Chennai next week”, Mr.Rajenderan said. M.Thirumalai, Vice Chancellor, Tamil University, appealed to the Malaysian Tamils to not lose their identity .

    He also said that Tamil University has signed a MoU with Colon University of Germany for joint research and exchange visits by students and teachers. “We have also sent a proposal to UGC for starting a PG diploma in Diasporic Studies.”

    While presenting books to the 35-member Malaysian delegation led by Rajendran , Mr.Thirumalai said that Malaysian youth should be introduced to modern Tamil literature. K.S.Senbagavalli, joint secretary, Malaysian Tamil Writers Association, spoke .

    V.Rajeswari, Malaysian Tamil writer, Gunanathan Arumugam, secretary, Malaysian Tamil Writers Association, A.Karthikeyan, Head of Department of Tamil Studies in Foreign Countries, Tamil University, and S.Udhayasuriyan, conference co-ordinator, also spoke.

    source: http://www.TheHindu.com  / Home> National> TamilNadu / by Special Correspondent / Thanjavur, November 27th, 2012

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    November 29th, 2012adminScience & Technologies, World Opinion

    Data detailed on Fuel Research have been presented. According to news originating from Tamil Nadu, India, by NewsRx correspondents, research stated, “In this study, the production of methyl ester from Oedogonium sp. oil was studied using an isolated thermo-, solvent-, and sono-tolerant Bacillus sp. lipase immobilized on celite. The application of ultrasound during the reaction reduced the reaction time significantly.”

    Our news journalists obtained a quote from the research from Anna University, “The effect of sonication time, enzyme dosage, water content, methanol/oil molar ratio, and solvent addition on the performance of transesterification was studied. The reaction time required in the presence and absence of ultrasound was 2 and 40 h, respectively. Under optimum conditions, 75 and 82% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields were obtained for normal and ultrasound-assisted transesterification, respectively.”

    According to the news editors, the research concluded: “The reusability of the immobilized enzyme after five cycles did not show much loss in enzyme activity, and this indicates that the isolated enzyme was not affected as a result of the application of ultrasound.”

    For more information on this research see: Production of Methyl Ester from Oedogonium sp Oil Using Immobilized Isolated Novel Bacillus sp Lipase. Energy & Fuels, 2012;26(10):6387-6392. Energy & Fuels can be contacted at: Amer Chemical Soc, 1155 16TH St, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA. (American Chemical Society – www.acs.org; Energy & Fuels – www.pubs.acs.org/journal/enfuem)

    The news correspondents report that additional information may be obtained from R. Sivaramakrishnan, Anna University, Dept. of Chem Engn, Madras 600025, Tamil Nadu, India (see also Fuel Research).

    source: http://www.equities.com / Global Financial network / Home> Materials / By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Life Science Weekly / by Fuel Research NewsRx.com

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    November 28th, 2012adminBusiness & Economy, Education

    Madurai, NOV. 27:

    Indian Institute of Management – Tiruchi (IIM-T) plans to offer free consultancy through its proposed incubation centre in the areas of finance, branding, human resource management and marketing.

    According to Prof Prafulla Agnihotri, Director, IIM, the initiative is intended to impart an economic thrust to the region. It will be akin to OPD (Outpatient Department) in hospitals. Prospective entrepreneurs will be provided space to operate at a very nominal cost and centralised facilities will be made available free of cost.

    Even after they moved out after establishing their businesses, the centre will continue to render hand-holding support.

    Entrepreneurship in manufacturing sector is the key for the growth of the regional economy. Faculties will visit the incubation centre on a daily basis and render free consultancy for small and medium enterprises.

    source: http://www.TheHinduBusinessLine.com / Home> News > Education / by the Hindu Correspondent  / Madurai, November 27th, 2012

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    November 28th, 2012adminArts, Culture & Entertainment, Nature

    (File Photo),  Deccan Chronicle

    The Anamalai Tiger Rese­r­­ve (ATR), which had been closed for the last four mo­nths, was thrown open for tourists on Tuesday.

    However, there were ha­r­dly any visitors during the day. “The public wouldn’t ha­ve known about the re­serve opening; however we expect tourists to come for sight-seeing from this weekend,” said Pollachi District Forest Officer Mr Velusamy.

    The tourist lodging facilities comprising rooms wi­th a total of 120 beds had been kept ready by the Forest department to acc­o­mmodate tourists. Howev­er, the tourists will not be able to go on elephant safaris at ATR as the animals were given rest in view of the rejuvenation camp that begun on Tues­day.

    “The elephant safari has been suspended for 48 days from Tuesday to provide complete rest to the animals. Normally three male elephants are engaged for carrying tourists in the forest for around two kilometres,” added Mr Velu­sa­my.

    The rejuvenation camp for 18 forest elephants has started in ATR a day after the beginning of a similar camp for temple elephants at Mettupalayam. For the forest elephants, the diet and refresher activities will be the same as that of temple elephants.

    With the reopening of ATR, several tourist pla­ces like Top Slip, Monkey Falls, Chinna Kallar Falls, Nallamudi View Point, Manampalli and Amara­va­thi Crocodile Farm will see tourists.

    The ATR had been closed since July 25 following an interim ban by the Supreme Court on all tourist activities in core tiger reserves across the country.

    Though as per the prescribed Supreme Court guidelines, tourism activities can be allowed within the stipulated 20 per cent of the core area, the Forest department has decided to allow tourism in only 6.1 per cent of the core area.

    “Tourism will be allowed in the same areas where it was permitted before the implementation of the ban,” said Mr Rajiv Srivastava, Field Director of ATR.

    source: http://www.DeccanChronicle.com / Home> Channels> Cities> Regions> Coimbatore / by V. Ashok, DC, Coimbatore / November 28th, 2012

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    November 27th, 2012adminArts, Culture & Entertainment

    With the mushrooming of  ‘chenda melam’  groups from neighbouring Kerala, the nadaswaram and thavil players in Thanjavur are getting a raw deal these days. Many temples where nadaswaram and thavil used to be played regularly, have now started hiring these chenda  melam groups for functions and rituals. At many functions including weddings, thavil is overtaken by chenda. Even though culture enthusiasts don’t make a comparison between traditional musical instruments, what worries them is the attitude shown towards the traditional folk instruments of Tamil Nadu.

    “The chenda melam groups from Kerala are settled in many big towns in southern Tamil Nadu. There are many such groups doing aggressive business in Thanjavur. Many thavil and nadaswaram players are jobless due to this. If things go like this, our traditional music instruments like thavil and nadaswaram will soon become museum pieces,” says Sada Sivakumar, a social and cultural activist in Thanjavur.

    Senior nadaswaram artist Kalaimamani Pattukottai Veerasamy says he is disappointed with the trend. “I am not against any musical instruments. I hate the attitude of the people towards our traditional musical instruments. We should never forget our thavil and nadaswaram. It’s our tradition,” he said.

    Being a barrel-shaped percussion instrument, thavil was used widely in folk and carnatic music, accompanied by nadaswaram. Both thavil and nadaswaram were essential during marriages. “We have great thavil and nadaswaram players in Thanjavur. But they are not able to find a stage or function these days. The main reason is that they don’t have groups. So chanda melam groups from other places make use of this,” says Sada Sivakumar, adding that there are at least 20 such groups in Thanjavur.

    Even though people don’t take this as a serious issue, many elders believe that soon the chenda melam groups would dominate the thavil-nadaswaram players. “I don’t think these groups have dominated our traditional thavil-nagaswaram players. Our artists are still active. But what worries me is the popularity of the chenda melam groups. They are now seen at every function and rituals,” said S Arumugham, a retired history professor in Pattukottai.

    The ready-made style of functioning, according to him, is the main reason why chenda melam groups are being invited to more and more functions. “They are easily accessible unlike our artists. They work on a fast and ready-made style. Today, people want such ‘fast’ artists only. It’s our problem. We should not forget our traditional art,” said Arumugham.

    source: http://www.timesofindia.indiatimes.com / Home> City> Madurai / by M T Saju, TNN / November 27th, 2012

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    On Monday the Society for Promotion of Science & Technology in India organized a seminar on India’s Contribution to Mathematics and Legacy of Srinivasa Ramanujan at DAV College in Chandigarh’s Sector 10.

    Professor M. S. Sriram of the University of Madras and Professor A. K. Agarwal of Panjab University spoke. Explaining the significance of mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan who died in 1920 at the age of 32, they said that during his lifetime, he was as a creative genius who generated a plethora of formulae. His discoveries appeared simple and yet there was more to them than initially met the eye and because of these theorems, new directions of research were opened up, Over the past 60 years, as nearly all of Ramanujan’s theorems have been proven right and appreciation of his work and brilliance have grown.

    His work now pervades many areas of modern mathematics and physics. As a tribute to Ramanujan, the Government of India declared December 22 – Ramanujan’s birthday to be ‘National Mathematics Day and  2012 has been designed National Mathematical Year.

    Speakers expressed their concern that Indian is not producing enough mathematicians. They said there is a general perception in our society that the pursuit of mathematics does not lead to attractive career possibilities.

    source: http://www.DayandNightNews.com  Home> The Capitol / Tuesday, November 27th, 2012

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    November 26th, 2012adminArts, Culture & Entertainment

    New Town — Coffee House. / The Hindu

    The New Town — Coffee House scores with a variety of Malaysian street food and Continental fare

    There are two things that most of us like doing while driving down the East Coast Road. One is wading into the warm frothy waters of the Bay of Bengal and two, snacking on what the numerous restaurants along the road have to offer. And thankfully, there are quite a few mushrooming en route giving us enough to choose from. The New Town — Coffee House is the fairly new kid on the block. Located opposite VGP Golden Beach, this cafe doesn’t give you the view of the sea, but the pretty wooden interiors with tempting photographs of food, and the dreamy al fresco seating area ensure you don’t miss the azure blue sea.

    New Town follows a concept that originated in Malaysia. It’s street food that’s been popularised by the Tamil Muslims who sold them at their food stalls commonly known as mamak stalls.

    The menu here therefore largely consists of popular Malaysian street food, Continental cuisine and a fair bit of Indian food too. Nasi goreng, nasi lemak, kaya toast, bangers and mash, kathi rolls, steaks, crispy noodles, biriyani, bruschetta, pasta … The accompanying friend who is on a gluten-free diet makes a big production of the decision making process. “No wraps, no sandwiches, no pasta…,” she lists out a whole lot of food items that’s off her diet list. As a result we decide… un-decide… ask the waiter to come back in 10 minutes and finally make our decision. Tenderloin teriyaki skewers and nasi lemak for her. Murtabak and cheese-stuffed drumstick for me.

    The teriyaki skewer has succulent chunks of lamb wedged between capsicum and tomato. This has the potential to taste better. No wonder the friend generously pushes the plate towards me and buries herself into the nasi lemak that comes as a full plate of steamed rice, a piece of fried chicken, chicken gravy and a boiled egg. It’s among the most authentic lemak you will find in Chennai.

    New Town Cafe is laidback; so is the service. But then nobody seems to be in a hurry. The neighbouring tables comprising a sullen couple, who don’t talk to each other but keep eating off each others’ plates, and a gang of college kids have been here for a while now and looks like they plan to stay longer.

    It takes a while before the rest of our orders get to our table. The mughlai-styled drumstick is the perfect fusion of cheese and keema. Deboned tandoori chicken leg stuffed with mildly flavoured minced chicken, nuts and cheese is served on a bed of badam and cream-emulsified sauce. Easy to cut, great to eat; need I say more. The murtabak, which is basically parantha stuffed with minced chicken and carrots, is quite authentic too. Except that there’s an excess of grated carrot and we could barely taste the meat. Maybe all the meat we ordered had emptied out their cold cuts freezer.

    The food is rather filling and the quantity is comfortable for two. We technically shouldn’t even be thinking of desserts. But when there are wafts of roti bom in the air you just have to give in. Strips of fluffy maida parota doused in condensed milk and honey is a challenge that one with a sweet tooth can barely resist. The dieting friend shows steely resolve… for a couple of minutes, and gives in. And, doesn’t stop with just one!

    On a scale of 10, New Town scores a well-deserved eight. Their catch phrase says ‘The destination is truly worth the journey’, and we couldn’t agree more.

    (New Town — Coffee House is located at No. 363, East Coast Road, Injambakkam. For details, call 91760-66866)

    source: http://www.TheHindu.com  / Home> Life & Style> MetroPlus / by Priyadarshini Paitandy / November 25th, 2012

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    November 26th, 2012adminArts, Culture & Entertainment, Education

    In connection with the 124 birth anniversary of Nobel Laureate Sir. C.V. Raman, birth anniversary of Indian Scientist Nobel Laureate Sir. C.V. Raman and National Science Day which falls on December 22, Nehru Children’s Cultural Association is organising a mathematics workshop from to 9th December 4 to 9 for school students. Mathematics talent contest and mathematics quiz competition will form a part of the programme only for those attending the workshop.

    Winners will receive certificates and prizes during Ramanujan’s birthday celebrations, which will be held on and 23 December 22 and 23 at SASTRA University, Thanjavur and Kumbakonam. Dr. K. Kannan, Professor and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Dr. R. Srikanth, Professor of Mathematics, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, will conduct the mathematics workshop.

    They will give lecture on innovative ideas in maths which will cover elementary number theory, theory of numbers, music in maths, elementary mathematical modelling, pattern recognition, solve Olympiad problems and competitive examination problems.

    Admission would be on first-come-first-servebasis.

    Interested students can contact M.R. Sugumaran, president, Nehru Children’s Cultural Association, at 81444 16484 on or before November 30.

    Classes : Monday to Friday :4.30 a.m to 6.30 p.m Saturday : 2 p.m to 6.15 p.m Sunday : 8.30 a.m to 12.45 p.m

    01.12.2012 : Saturday : Inauguration : 4.30 p.m to 6.30 p.m

    09.12.2012 :Sunday : Valedictory : 9 a.m to 1.15 p.m

    Function : 22 & 23 December : SASTRA University, Thanjavur & Kumbakonam

    source: http://www.thehindu.com / Home> News> Cities> Chennai / November 25th, 2012

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    EMERGING POWER: Commissioner of Police Shailesh Kumar Yadav flagging off the locos at Golden Rock Railway Workshop in the city on Thursday. P.Mahesh, Chief Workshop Manager, Golden Rock Railway Workshop, is in the picture. /  Photo: M. Moorthy / The Hindu

    Workshop has been exporting MG locos to several countries

    Two in-service broad gauge locomotives converted into Cape gauge ones for Mozambique by the Golden Rock Railway Workshop were flagged off for export from here on Thursday.

    The conversion, to suit the requirement of the Mozambique Railway network, was carried out by reducing the gauge distance from 1676 to 1067 mm. The horse power of one of the locomotive was upgraded from 2,400 to 3,100 HP and from 1,800 to 2,400 HP in the other.

    The workshop had also carried out a series of modifications to increase the horse power by providing higher displacement turbo super charger, upgraded fuel injection equipment, larger capacity air intake cooler and micro processor controlled excitation system.

    Several other special features have also been included. A plate type oil cooler to improve cooling efficiency of the engine lubricating system, self cleaning centrifugal lubricating oil filter system to increase life of engine oil, stainless steel interior panel in one of the locomotives and fibre reinforced plastic panel in the other, long-life polyurethane exterior painting and upgraded brake system have been provided. One of the locomotives also has an air-conditioned cabin.

    The locomotives were flagged off by Shailesh Kumar Yadav, City Police Commissioner, in the presence of P.Mahesh, Chief Workshop Manager, and R.K.Rana, General Manager, RITES. The Golden Rock workshop has been exporting metre gauge in-service locos to various countries such as Malaysia, Myanmar, Mozambique, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, Sudan, and Benin. The shop has exported 133 metre gauge locomotives to these countries through Rail India Technical and Economic Service and Indian Railway Construction Company. The exported locos also include 34 in-service metre gauge locomotives converted into Cape gauge for Mozambique and Sudan.

    source: http://www.TheHindu.com / Home> News> Cities> Tiruchirapalli / by Special Correspondent / Tiruchi, November 23rd, 2012

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